The Hans Rausing Endangered Languages ProjectThe Hans Rausing Endangered Languages Project   The Hans Rausing Endangered Languages Project


All links by title


OREL is a regularly updated library (also in Arabic) of nearly 400 annotated and categorised links to web resources on revitalising or documenting endangered languages, including links on language endangerment and revitalisation, technology and techniques, ethical issues, and funding sources. For more details see About OREL. To suggest a site contact

Aboriginal Community Languages Assistance (Grants) Program
Aboriginal Languages Research and Resource Centre

The Language Centre administers the Aboriginal Community Languages Assistance Program. This grants program provides one-off grants of up to $25,000 to Aboriginal community organisations to help them undertake language revitalisation.

The Aboriginal Language Program Planning Workbook
Barbara Kavanagh

This workbook is meant to be used in conjunction with the Aboriginal Language Program Planning Handbook, to facilitate group discussions and activities related to the development and implementation of a language program.

Aboriginal Languages Initiative
First Peoples' Cultural Foundation

The overall goal of the Aboriginal Languages Initiative (ALI) is to support preservation and promotion of Aboriginal languages for future generations of Aboriginal peoples and other Canadians.

Aboriginal Languages of Australia
David Nathan

This site has annotated links to 231 resources for about 80 languages. About 35% of these resources are produced or published by Indigenous people.

Aboriginal Peoples Survey 2001 - initial findings: Well-being of the non-reserve Aboriginal Population
Statistics Canada

Includes detailed statistics on Aboriginal language acquisition in Canada.

The Absolute Minimum Every Software Developer Absolutely, Positively Must Know About Unicode and Character Sets (No Excuses!)
Joel Spolsky

A simple introduction to Unicode for programmers.

Administration for Native Americans
US Department of Health and Human Services

ANA provides project funding to eligible applicants for the purpose of assisting Native Americans to assure the survival and continuing vitality of their languages.

Bisharat: A12N Gateway
Osborn, Don

African language encoding, fonts, keyboards: discussion fora and reference pages.

Bartlomiej Plichta

A site offering, in addition to a vowel analysis program, discussions of recording equipment for linguists.

Alan Wood's Unicode Resources
Alan Wood

A variety of resources, including fonts and software, for Unicode.

University of Alaska Anchorage

Online materials about Alaska Native history, education, languages, and cultures.

Colin Sprague and Yu Hu

"The original purpose of Alchemist is to allow you to read in raw text files and create morphological gold-standards in XML format. Using Alchemist, you can identify morphemes, along with a number of important characteristics of the morphemes, such as whether they are roots or affixes, the degree of analyst certainty, and allomorphs of the morpheme."

Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica

An open-source media player with support for SMIL 2.1.

L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde
Jacques Leclerc

Details on the language policies and laws of the world's countries.

ANA Native Language Preservation: A Reference Guide for Establishing Archives and Repositories
Administration for Native Americans

The Native Language Preservation: A Reference Guide for Establishing Archives and Repositories is a book for sale explaining why language repositories are vital to long-term language preservation efforts, offers advice on what to preserve and how to think about cataloging, includes interviews with curators of large collections and descriptions of construction techniques that will assist in the preservation of irreplaceable treasures, includes policies for repositories and instructions on how to find materials that have already been saved in government and other collections, and contains information on how to develop a disaster plan.

Claire Bowern

A blog where a linguist documenting Australian languages recounts her experiences and discusses issues in language endangerment and documentation.

Anthropology/Linguistic Field Checklist
James A. Fox, Stanford University

Some suggestions on what to bring for fieldwork.

Applying Computer Multimedia Storytelling Website in Foreign Language Learning
Wenli Tsou, Weichun Wang, and Yenjun Tzeng

A multimedia storytelling website was designed as a teaching tool. The website contains the following feature modules: Accounts administration module, Multimedia story composing module, and Story re-playing module.

Archivists' Toolkit: Appraisal and Accessioning
Archivists' Association of British Columbia

Some links for appraisal and accessioning of archival material.

Ask an Expert

Ask-An-Expert is a service provided by The LINGUIST List, as part of the E-MELD School of Best Practice. It is staffed by a panel of E-MELD advisors with technical expertise, who have volunteered to give their time to help fellow linguists follow recommended practices in digitizing language documentation.

Dominic Mazzoni et al.

Audacity is "a free, easy-to-use audio editor and recorder for Windows, Mac OS X, GNU/Linux, and other operating systems."

Nick Thieberger

A tool for building corpora of linked transcripts and digitised media.

Audio Field Recording Equipment Guide: Vermont Folklife Center
Andy Kolovos, Vermont Folklife Center

This document is designed to offer guidance to researchers interested in obtaining audio recording equipment for conducting folklore, ethnomusicology, oral history and other ethnographic fieldwork projects.

Audio Media
Audio Media

A professional audio technology magazine

Audio Preservation
Hannah Frost, American Library Association

A bibliography and collection of links on audio preservation, particularly for librarians.

Laurent Dousset

The AusAnthrop site is dedicated to research and resources in anthropology, for academics as well as the layman. Special accent is on Aboriginal Australia, and more specifically on the Aborigines of the Western Desert cultural bloc.

Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database
Robert Blust et al.

This database contains 93,074 lexical items from 453 languages spoken throughout the Pacific region. These languages all belong to the Austronesian language family, which is the largest family in the world.

Author-generated Dublin Core Metadata for Web Resources
Jane Greenberg, Maria Cristina Pattuelli, Bijan Parsia and W. Davenport Robertson

This paper reports on a study that examined the ability of resource authors to create acceptable metadata in an organizational setting. The results indicate that authors can create good quality metadata when working with the Dublin Core, and in some cases they may be able to create metadata that is of better quality than a metadata professional can produce.

Ole Stig Andersen

A Danish-English bilingual site on endangered languages and language issues, often with multimedia.

Barren Lands Digital Collection
J. B. Tyrrell, University of Toronto

A digital collection consisting chiefly of material describing the two Barren Lands expeditions of 1893 and 1894 for the Geological Survey of Canada. It includes over 5,000 images from original field notebooks, correspondence, photographs, maps and published reports.

Bisharat: Basic documents on language policy in Africa
Osborn, Don

This page attempts to bring together key documents relating to language policy in Africa. They begin with consideration of orthography in the colonial period. Over the years since independence, there have been a number of conferences and meetings addressing various aspects of language policy, from standardization of transcription to policies to favor development of African languages. And in Bamako in 2000 & 2002, one can see the beginnings of consideration of how the new technologies will accommodate Africa's multilingual realities. The reports, declarations, and plans issued from these events can be useful references in the consideration of diverse aspects of the meeting of African languages and the new ICTs.

Basic Oral Language Documentation
Bird, Steven

Training university students and literacy teachers to collect and curate oral texts from indigenous languages, with a focus is on Papua New Guinea.

Batteries in Fact and Fiction
Hawaii Ham Radio Information Pages

More than you need to know about batteries.

Bibliography on language endangerment and language revitalisation
Tasaku Tsunoda

A bibliography dealing with language endangerment, language death, language revitalisation, language policy and planning, and documentation.

The Birth and Death of Languages
David W. Lightfoot

In this video, Dr. David W. Lightfoot discusses how and why languages live and die.

The Broadcast Wave Format
R. Chalmers - European Broadcasting Union

An introduction to BWF audio format.

Building the pod (Understanding Adobe Audition)
Bruce Williams

A guided tour of how to use Adobe Audition

Café con Leche XML News and Resources
Elliote Rusty Harold

News and links for XML.

Canada's Aboriginal Languages
The Atlas of Canada

Maps and statistics on Aboriginal languages in Canada.

Cedars Guide to Digital Preservation Strategies
Cedars Project (University of Leeds, Oxford, Cambridge)

A guide to technical approaches to digital preservation and archiving, aimed principally at librarians.

Cedars Project
Cedars Project (University of Leeds, Oxford, Cambridge)

Cedars began in April 1998 and ended in March 2002. Its broad objective was to explore digital preservation issues. These range through acquiring digital objects, their long-term retention, sufficient description, and eventual access.

Center for American Indian Languages
University of Utah

The goals of CAIL include working with community members where languages and cultures are endangered, towards linguistic and cultural revitalization; urgent and ambitious work to document the endangered languages of Native America (where documentation means adequate grammar, dictionary, and abundant texts to represent the language in its many uses); and training students to address scholarly and practical needs involving these languages and their communities of speakers (and those whose heritage languages are involved).

Center for the Study of Indigenous Languages of the West
University of Colorado

The CSILW is devoted to conducting research on the Native American languages of the western United States, including the Siouan, Caddoan, and Arapahoan groups.

Centre d'Etudes des Langues Indigènes d'Amérique

Site includes back issues of the journal Amerindia.

Chadic Newsletter Online

News related to the study of Chadic languages.

Character Sets

A collection of character set related links.

Cheyenne Dictionary Project
Chief Dull Knife College

A dictionary of Cheyenne, an endangered language of the western US.

Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache Texts
Harry Hoijer, University of Virgina

An electronic version of a volume of Apache texts, with some functionalities added.

Choosing an XML Editor
Thijs van den Broek, Arts and Humanities Data Service

With the increasing popularity of XML, the number of XML editors is also increasing and it can be difficult to choose the editor that best suits a particular user or task. The aim of this Information Paper is to provide an introduction to different features XML editors can have and the extent to which these features are implemented in various editors. It also presents the result of an evaluation exercise where different user groups tried a number of the editors.

Computational Resources for Linguistic Research
Bill Poser

This page lists computational tools for doing linguistics, emphasising free software that runs on Unix systems.

Creating Digital Images: Digital Cameras
Technical Advisory Services for Images

This document looks at the underlying technologies that drive the digital cameras available today and shows how these technologies influence how the camera works and will hopefully enable you to make the correct choice of digital camera.

Dakota Language / Nakona Language Lessons
Fort Peck Community College

Sells language learning materials for Dakota / Nakona; three sample lessons each are online.

Dan's Web Tips: Characters and Fonts
Dan Tobias

A beginner's introduction to character set issues.


A set of shareware audio software

The Design of Online Lexicons
Sean Michael Burke

This work is an introduction to topics in the design of online lexicons.

Developing Linguistic Corpora: A Guide to Good Practice
ed. Martin Wynne, AHDS

This Guide is aimed at those who are at some stage of building a linguistic corpus. Little or no knowledge of corpus linguistics or computational procedures is assumed, although it is hoped that more advanced users will also find the guidelines here useful.

Diacritics Project
Filip Blažek

Tips for typographers on how to design diacritics, with comments on usage.

Dictionary making in endangered speech communities
Mosel, Ulrike

This paper discusses a number of problems which are characteristic of lexicographic work in short-term language documentation projects and addresses the following issues: cooperation with the speech community, the selection of a dialect and the challenge to produce a useful piece of work meeting the scientific standards of lexicography in spite of limited resources of time, money and staff and the fact that the indigenous language is not well researched, the linguist does not have a thorough knowledge of the language and the indigenous assistants do not speak the lingua franca fluently.

Digital Curation Centre
Digital Curation Centre

The Digital Curation Centre has been established to help solve the extensive challenges of digital preservation and to provide research, advice and support services to UK institutions.

Digital Editing of Field Audio
Andy Kolovos, Vermont Folklife Center

A guide to digital editing of audio recorded in the field.

Digital Endangered Languages and Musics Archives Network (DELAMAN)

The Digital Endangered Languages and Musics Archives Network was established in 2003 as an international umbrella body for archives and other initiatives with the goal of documenting and archiving endangered languages and cultures worldwide. Their aim is to stimulate interaction about practical matters that result from the experiences of fieldworkers and archivists, and to act as an information clearinghouse. DELAMAN is intended as an open organisation where any initiative actively contributing to documentation and archiving of endangered languages and musics can participate.

Digital Libraries
William Arms

This online edition of Digital Libraries is an updated version of the book of the same name published by the M.I.T. Press in January 2000.

Digital Recordkeeping: Guidelines for Creating, Managing and Preserving Digital Records
National Archives of Australia

Guidleines for digital recordkeeping

Digital Voice Player 2.1

This is free, dedicated software for use with the DVF, ICS, MSV and WAV file types used by the ICD-BP100, ICD-BP120, ICD-MS1, ICD-R100 IC Recorders.

Diversité linguistique et culturelle

A variety of videos exploring endangered languages from an academic perspective.

Volkswagen Foundation

In 2000 the Volkswagen Foundation started the DOBES programme in order to document languages that are potentially in danger of becoming extinct within a few years time. Currently, 30 documentation teams are working, and it is the expectation that there will be calls for concrete documentation projects until 2007.

Documenting Endangered Languages (DEL)
National Science Foundation

This multi-year funding partnership between the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) supports projects to develop and advance knowledge concerning endangered human languages. Funding will support fieldwork and other activities relevant to recording, documenting, and archiving endangered languages, including the preparation of lexicons, grammars, text samples, and databases. Funding will be available in the form of one- to three-year project grants as well as fellowships for up to twelve months. At least half the available funding will be awarded to projects involving fieldwork.

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative

The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an open organization engaged in the development of interoperable online metadata standards that support a broad range of purposes and business models.

Dying Tongues

A special report on the endangerment of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara languages for a popular audience.

EAD: Encoded Archival Description
Library of Congress

The EAD Document Type Definition (DTD) is a standard for encoding archival finding aids using Extensible Markup Language (XML).

e-ARENA - Musiclab's Newsletter

An Australian audio equipment newsletter.

Ega Web Archive
Dafydd Gibbon

A repository of recordings and information on Ega.

Electronic Design Laboratory
Electronic Design Laboratory

Commercial minidisc software for transferring tracks to PC and recovering data from corrupted minidiscs.

Wayne State University, Eastern Michigan University, University of Arizona, Linguistic Data Consortium, Endangered Language Fund

Electronic Metastructure for Endangered Language Data, a project with the objective of aiding in the preservation of endangered languages data and documentation and in the development of the infrastructure necessary for effective collaboration among electronic archives.

Emerging Issues in Intellectual Property
World Intellectual Property Organisation

Various explanatory publications on emerging areas of current interest in intellectual property, from the WIPO.

Endangered Archives
British Library, supported by Arcadia

The Programme's aim is to contribute to the preservation of archival material that is in danger of destruction, neglect or physical deterioration world-wide. The main means by which the Programme achieves this is through the creation of digital or microfilm copies of endangered materials and the relocation of the originals to a safe local archival home. Grants are awarded to applicants for these purposes on an annual recurring basis.

Endangered Language Alliance
Bob Holman, Juliette Blevins, Dan Kaufman

A New York-based non-profit organization whose mission is to further the documentation, description, maintenance, and revitalization of threatened and endangered languages, and to educate the public about the causes and consequences of language extinction.

Endangered Language Fund
Doug Whalen, Yale University

The Endangered Language Fund is devoted to the scientific study of endangered languages, the support of native efforts in maintaining endangered languages, and the dissemination, to both the native communities and the scholarly world, of the fruits of these efforts .

Endangered Language Resources
David Nash

David Nash's endangered language links.

Endangered Languages

SIL on language endangerment and its policies on it.

Endangered Languages List

A mailing list on endangered language issues.

Endangered Languages of Indigenous Peoples of Siberia

At least some 30 languages in the region of Siberia can be seen as endangered. This site includes descriptions and bibliographies, as well as data and technical devices.

Endangered Languages on Film, Video, and DVD
Ole Stig Andersen

This overview lists, comments and links to a majority, the author believes, of the available TV/Film/Web-documentaries and features in/on endangered languages.

Endangered Languages: A Webguide to Government Information Resources

This webguide presents government information resources related to endangered and minority languages.

Enduring Voices
National Geographic & Living Tongues

An interactive map of “language hotspots” intended to promote awareness of language loss.

Equipment for Audio Recording of Speech
University College London

This page provides advice in the selection of audio equipment for the recording of speech, targeted at linguists and phoneticians.

Essentials of Language Documentation: Resources on Ethics and Rights
Jost Gippert, Nikolaus P. Himmelmann, Ulrike Mosel (eds.)

Links relating to issues of language documentation ethics and linguistic rights

LSA Ethics Statement Discussion Blog
Linguistic Society of America

In 2006 the LSA formed an Ethics Committee and charged it with drafting a statement of professional ethics on the Society’s behalf. The Ethics Committee is now (as of 2008) seeking feedback from LSA members on its draft statement through means of this blog.

Ethical practices in language documentation and archiving
Gary Holton

A presentation on how to document a language ethically.

EthnoER wiki
University of Melbourne

These pages allow discussion of various models for online annotation and browsing of ethnographic media corpora.

SIL International, Raymond G. Gordon

An encyclopedic reference work attempting to catalogue all of the world’s known living languages , 6,912 by its count.

Ethnomusicological Video for Instruction and Analysis
Indiana University, University of Michigan

The EVIA Digital Archive project is a joint effort of Indiana University and the University of Michigan to establish a digital archive of ethnomusicological video for use by scholars and instructors. It aims to preserve video recordings and make them easily accessible for teaching and research, providing an alternative to physical archives by creating a functioning digital repository and delivery system containing approximately 150 hours of digital video and accompanying metadata. Part of this metadata will include annotations and analysis of video content by the scholars who made the recordings.

Ethnomusicology Archive Report
UCLA Ethnomusicology Archive

The EAR is an informal discussion of ethnomusicology archiving at UCLA and in the world, issued four times a year.

Etnolingüística: línguas indígenas da América do Sul

A discussion forum and extensive link library on Native South American languages.

EuroBABEL: Better Analyses Based on Endangered Languages
European Science Foundation

The main purpose of the EUROCORES programme EuroBABEL is to promote empirical research on underdescribed endangered languages, both spoken and signed, that aims at changing and refining our ideas about linguistic structure in general and about language in relation to cognition, social and cultural organization and related issues in a trans-/ multi-disciplinary perspective.

European Bureau for Lesser-Known Languages

Eurolang® is a specialist niche news agency covering topics related to lesser-used languages, linguistic diversity, stateless nations and national minorities within the European Union.

European Commission

In 1992, wishing to take stock of the situation of the various language communities in Europe, The Commission initiated a study on minority language groups in the European Union. The purpose of the study, entitled "Euromosaic", was to find out about the different regional and minority languages in existence and to establish their potential for production and reproduction, and the difficulties they encounter in doing so.

European Bureau for Lesser-Known Languages
European Bureau for Lesser-Known Languages

The European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages (EBLUL) is a Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) promoting languages and linguistic diversity. It is based on a network of Member State Committees (MSCs) in all the ‘old' 15 EU Member States and many of the new Member States that have joined the EU in May 2004.

Eva's Solar Page
Eva Lindholm

How to make a portable solar power recharger for fieldwork.

FATSIL Guide to Community Protocols for Indigenous Language Projects 2004
Federation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages

The aim of this document is to encourage positive relationships between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and their (linguist) consultants.

Firebird Foundation For Anthropological Research Inc.
George Appell

The unique oral literatures of indigenous peoples are rapidly being lost through the death of the traditional practitioners and through the schooling of the next generation. The Program for Oral Literature of the Firebird Foundation has initiated a project to fund the collection of this body of rapidly disappearing literature. This literature may consist of ritual texts, curative chants, epic poems, musical genres, folk tales, songs, myths, legends, historical accounts, life history narratives, word games, and so on.

The First Nations Languages of British Columbia
Bill Poser

More than thirty languages are spoken by the native people of British Columbia. This site provides information about these languages, much of it in the form of bibliographic information and links to other sites containing more detailed information on particular languages and other relevant topics.

First Peoples' Cultural Foundation

Online language learning portals for a number of Native Canadian languages.

Formosan Language Archive
Academia Sinica

The aims of this project are to collect, conserve, edit and disseminate via the world wide web a virtual library of language and linguistic resources permitting access to recorded and transcribed Formosan data collections.

Forum for Language Initiatives
Forum for Language Initiatives

Resource and training centre working to enable the language communities of northern Pakistan to preserve and promote their mother tongues.

Endangered Languages Documentation Programme
Hans Rausing Endangered Languages Project

Our Endangered Languages Documentation Programme offers up to UK£1million in grants each year for the documentation of endangered languages.

Foundation for Endangered Languages
Foundation for Endangered Languages

The aims of the Foundation are to raise awareness of endangered languages, to support the use of endangered languages in all contexts, to support the use of endangered languages in all contexts, to support the documentation of endangered languages, to collect together and make available information of use in the preservation of endangered languages. The Foundation awards grants to projects that further these aims, as and when funds permit.

Free XML Tools
Lars Marius Garshol

An index of free XML tools, with much metadata about the tools to make them easier to locate.

Gallery of Unicode Fonts
David McCreedy and Mimi Weiss

This Gallery displays samples of available Unicode fonts by writing system (roughly Unicode ranges).

General Guide to Audiovisual Preservation

If you have audiovisual media, it needs maintenance – or you will lose it. This guide shows how to maintain it.

Gesellschaft für Bedrohte Sprachen
Gesellschaft für Bedrohte Sprachen

A group of German linguists founded the Society for Endangered Languages in November of 1997 together with the members of the work group "Endangered Languages" of the German Society for Linguistics in Cologne. The goal of this non-profit organization is to further the use, preservation, and documentation of endangered languages and dialects.

Getting Started: Unicode
Penn State University

This page provides an overview of encoding foreign language text electronically and provide an overview of what kinds of utlities and fonts are needed to support individual languages.

Got a Digital Camera for Christmas? Learn How to Use it Here
Digital Photography School

A series of tutorials intended to help new digital camera owners to get the most of their cameras.

Guidelines for Strengthening Indigenous Languages
Alaska Native Knowledge Network

The guidance offered in these pages is intended to provide assistance to the local language advisory committees created under Senate Bill 103 that are responsible for making recommendations regarding the future of the heritage language in their community.

Handbook for Recording Aboriginal Languages Vol. 1
Philip Djwa

This handbook is intended to provide a basic overview of video and audio recording techniques as they relate to Aboriginal languages. It includes specific suggestions for achieving high quality sound and video at a reasonable price, as well as tips for ensuring that the resources can be maintained and used over time.

Himalayan Languages Project
George van Driem

The Himalayan Languages Project, headquartered in Bern, has since 1983 represented the largest sustained language documentation effort in the greater Himalayan region. Members of the multi-national research team consist of both students and young linguists working towards their Ph.D. at Bern University as well as post-doc and senior researchers.

HI-MD Renderer Program

This program renders HI-MD minidisc files that have been uploaded via SongStage into a .wav file.

How to Transfer Cassette Tape to Computer

A non-professional but handy set of tips for digitising cassette tapes.

IMDI Metadata Tools
Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics

With the IMDI browser you can explore existing corpora from the MPI, DOBES, CGN and others. The IMDI editor is used to create IMDI metadata structures and descriptions for language resources like media files and annotations.

Indigenous Documents in Asia
Toyota Foundation

Under the Asian Neighbors Program Special Subject, "Preservation, Utilization, and Transmission of Indigenous Documents in Asia", the term "indigenous documents" applies to all handwritten materials chronicling the histories, customs, or worldviews of people in Asia. Under this Special Subject the program provides grant support for projects aimed at preserving, utilizing, and transmitting such documents.

Indigenous Language Institute
Indigenous Language Institute

ILI is intended to facilitate community-based initiatives for language revitalization through collaboration with other appropriate groups and organizations, and promote public awareness of this crisis.

Indigenous Language Revitalisation: Encouragement, Guidance and Lessons Learned
Jon Reyhner and Louise Lockard (eds.)

The contents of Indigenous Language Revitalization come from the 14th and 15th annual Stabilizing Indigenous Languages conferences, and are meant to help both linguists and community language activists advance the goal of Indigenous language revitalization.

Indigenous Peoples in Brazil
Instituto Socioambiental

Information about the indigenous peoples of Brazil, including extensive bibliographies and links.

The Intangible Heritage Messenger: Endangered Languages

This special issue of the Messenger is devoted to UNESCO’s Endangered Languages Programme, one of the main activities of the Intangible Heritage Section.

Intellectual Property Guide: Indigenous Cultural Expression, Knowledge and Copyright
Caslon Analytics

An overview of indigenous IP issues with a list of some relevant laws and works.

International Council on Archives
International Council on Archives

The mission of ICA is to promote the preservation and use of archives around the world.

The International Phonetic Alphabet in Unicode
John Wells, University College London

A simple guide to displaying and using Unicode IPA characters.

IPA: Fonts
International Phonetic Association

IPA font links, somewhat outdated.

ISO 639-2
Library of Congress

The Library of Congress has been designated the ISO 639-2/RA for the purpose of processing requests for alpha-3 language codes comprising the International Standard, Codes for the representation of names of languages-- Part 2: alpha-3 code. Note that this standard will be superseded by ISO 639-3.

ISO/FDIS 639-3
SIL International

This is the home page for Part 3 of the ISO 639 family of standards, Codes for the representation of names of languages. ISO 639-3 (which is currently a Final Draft International Standard) attempts to provide as complete an enumeration of languages as possible, including living, extinct, ancient, and constructed languages, whether major or minor, written or unwritten. Largely based on the Ethnologue codes.

J. P. Harrington Database Project
J. P. Harrington, Martha Macri, Victor Golla, Lisa Woodward

The goal of the J. P. Harrington Project is to increase access to the linguistic and ethnographic notes on American Indian languages collected by J. P. Harrington during the first half of the twentieth century. The men and women he interviewed were often among the last remaining speakers of their languages.

Jabal al-Lughat
Lameen Souag

An eclectic linguistics blog focusing mainly on endangered languages in and around the Arab world.

James Crawford's Language Policy Web Site & Emporium
James Crawford

This web site reports on the English Only movement, bilingual education, Native American language revitalization, minority language rights, demographic data on language usage, and related issues, with an emphasis on the author's own writings.

Fauzan Helmi Sudaryanto

KardinaL, stands for “Kamus Tradisonal Online” (Online Traditional Language Dictionary), is intended as an integrated online dictionary for different languages of Indonesia.

Karuk Language Resources
Karuk Language Program et al.

A set of resources developed by and for Karuk learners of Karuk.

Kattang Language Revitalisation
Many Rivers Aboriginal Language Centre

An effort to help revive the Kattang language.

Kirrkirr: software for the exploration of indigenous language dictionaries
Kevin Jansz, Christopher Manning, Nitin Indurkhya, and many others

Kirrkirr is a research project exploring the use of computer software for automatic transformation of lexical databases ("dictionaries"), aiming at providing innovative information visualization, particularly targeted at indigenous languages. It can generate networks of words automatically from dictionary data. Kirrkirr aims at a perceived gap in work being done elsewhere: while there is a lot of work on designing dictionary databases, and providing software for building and maintaining these databases, there is a dearth of work that exploits these databases to provide useful and fun tools for nontechnical end users.

Lakhota Language Consortium
Lakhota Language Consortium

"Revitalising Lakhota, one child at a time."

Language Archives Newsletter
ed. David Nathan, Romuald Skiba, Marcus Uneson

The Language Archives Newsletter provides news and informative articles about topics in endangered languages, especially archiving, fieldwork, language documentation, data and media management, computer tools, and developments in relevant technologies. LAN warmly welcomes submissions of news, reviews, and articles from anyone working in these areas.

Language Death Bibliography
United Bible Societies

A bibliography of more than 300 works relating to language death.

Language engineering for the Semantic Web: a digital library for endangered languages
Shiyong Lu, et al., Wayne State University

This paper describes describe the effort undertaken at Wayne State University to preserve endangered languages using the state-of-the-art information technologies. They discuss the issues involved in such an effort, and present the architecture of a distributed digital library which will contain various data of endangered languages in the forms of text, image, video and audio files and include advanced tools for intelligent cataloguing, indexing, searching and browsing information on languages and language analysis. Various Semantic Web technologies such as XML, OLAC, and ontologies are used so that the digital library is developed as a useful linguistic resource on the Semantic Web.

Language Geek
Christopher Harvey

A site offering keyboards, fonts, and summaries of the orthographies of a number of north American languages.

Language Map Server
Östen Dahl and Ljuba Veselinova

Discusses issues relating to mapping languages using GIS systems.

Language Revitalisation Policy: An Analytical Survey, Theoretical Framework, Policy Experience and Application to Te Reo Māori
Francois Grin, Francois Vaillancourt

Examines the options for Maori language revitalisation.

Language Revival Links

Some links on language revival.

Languages of the Land: A Resource Manual for Aboriginal Language Activists
NWT Literacy Council

This manual has been prepared as an active planning tool for Aboriginal language activists throughout the new Northwest Territories. It is based on the belief that the Aboriginal languages of the Northwest Territories can only be maintained and passed on to younger generations if there is a concerted effort by many individuals and organizations to revitalize the languages.

Languages of Zambia
Lee S. Bickmore

A bibliography of Zambian languages organised by location and language name.

Legal, Ethical, and Policy Issues Concerning the Recording and Publication of Primary Language Materials
Mark Liberman

The purpose of these background materials is to give workshop participants a general sense of the legal and regulatory context of language documentation projects in the United States, especially in academic settings.

Lesser Known Languages of India
CIIL, Mysore, and Uppsala University

The aim of this project is to collect, organize and disseminate information on some lesser-known Indian languages, many of which are threatened with extinction. The project will include linguistic documentation (i.e. texts and speech files) as well as documentation anchoring this linguistic material to social and cultural aspects of these communities. Not much has been put online here so far.


"Promotion of policies that protect language diversity and that foster the learning of several languages constitutes the basic orientation of the Linguapax Institute."

Linguistic Annotation Wiki
Linguistic Annotation Wiki

This wiki describes tools and formats for creating and managing linguistic annotations. `Linguistic annotation‘ covers any descriptive or analytic notations applied to raw language data. The basic data may be in the form of time functions -- audio, video and/or physiological recordings -- or it may be textual. The added notations may include transcriptions of all sorts (from phonetic features to discourse structures), part-of-speech and sense tagging, syntactic analysis, "named entity" identification, co-reference annotation, and so on.

Linguistic Data Consortium
University of Pennsylvania

The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education, research and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data, tools and standards.

Linguistic Discovery (Dartmouth College)
Dartmouth College; ed. Lenore A. Grenoble, Lindsay J. Whaley

An online journal dedicated to the description and analysis of primary linguistic data.

Linguistic Human Rights: A Sociolinguistic Introduction
Peter L. Patrick

Issues of language rights have become increasingly prominent in the last decade, and are often raised in the context of more general human rights. Linguists have become involved in this area via diverse pathways – e.g., language endangerment, preservation and revitalization; language planning; forensic (=legal) linguistics; bilingual education and other school-centered language issues; action research with urban linguistic minorities; work with indigenous peoples, including land claims; refugee and asylum issues, and more.

Linguistics Fieldwork Preparation: A Guide for Field Linguists
University of Toronto

Linguistic Fieldwork Preparation: a guide for field linguists is meant to be a comprehensive web-resource for the benefit of the linguistic community at large, from those who teach courses in field methods, endangered languages, and language revitalization, to those who do or wish to conduct field research. It includes an extensive bibliography of pertinant readings, access to an array of technological tools, leads on funding bodies as well as course syllabi for field methods and language endangerment courses.

Linguist's Software
Linguist's Software

Commercial font sets for linguists.

Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages
Living Tongues

The mission of the Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages is to promote the documentation, maintenance, preservation, and revitalization of endangered languages worldwide through linguist-aided, community-driven multi-media language documentation projects.


LL-MAP is a project designed to integrate language information with data from the physical and social sciences by means of a Geographical Information System (GIS).

Stanford University Libraries

LOCKSS (for "Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe") is open source software that provides librarians with a way to collect, store, preserve, and provide access to their own, local copy of authorized content they purchase, creating low-cost, persistent, accessible copies of e-journal content as it is published.

Lost Tongues and the Politics of Language Endangerment
Salikoko S. Mufwene

What are the factors that drive a language to the brink of extinction, and what allows others to prosper--or simply to survive? Salikoko Mufwene, professor and chair of the department of linguistics at the University of Chicago, explains how globalization, colonialism, politics, and race relations affect how and why we speak the way we do.

Maintenance of Indigenous Languages and Records
Australian Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts

The Maintenance of Indigenous Languages and Records (MILR) program addresses the steady erosion and loss of Australia’s estimated 250 original Indigenous languages by providing support for the maintenance and revival of these languages.

A Manager's Introduction to the Adobe XML Metadata Framework

A very gentle introduction to XML and Adobe's software for it.

Dave Moskovitz and the Māori Language Commission

The Mātāpuna Dictionary Writing System is a free, web-based, multi-user, multilingual dictionary writing system. The system assists with many aspects of lexicography, including team collaboration, routine error and consistency checking, corpus searching, publishing, and progress monitoring in addition to the traditional headword and entry management.
Jupitermedia Corporation

A digital camera review web magazine.

MERCATOR :: Linguistic Rights and Legislation
Mercator Network

As a research centre, Mercator-Legislation assembles a diversity of researchers and projects within the fields of sociolinguistics, glottopolitics and law. Its interdisciplinary character allows it to carry out a permanent monitoring work regarding the official recognition of languages, their juridical status and related regulation in force, or in process of development, that guarantee its public use.

Cory Doctorow

A sceptical perspective on metadata in practice.

Metadata for your Digital Resource
Iain Wallace and Eileen Maitland, AHDS

This paper discusses different forms of documentation, from unstructured information to resource discovery and preservation metadata. The paper is intended to enable anyone embarking on a digitisation project to make informed choices about how to successfully document their digital resources.

Microphone Theory Links
Han-Kwang Nienhuys

A variety of links relating to microphones and recording techniques.

Microphones for the TRV900
John Beale

Advice on attaching microphones to video cameras.

Microsoft Keyboard Layout Creator

Extends the international functionality of Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003,and Windows Vista systems by allowing users to create new keyboard layouts from scratch

Microsoft Typography - Fonts and products

Information about Microsoft fonts, including their code ranges.

Minidisc Frequently Asked Questions
Eric Woudenberg,

A rather extensive FAQ on minidiscs.

MOST Clearing House: Linguistic Rights

To raise awareness about linguistic rights and to provide tools for decision-makers in governments, parliaments, and civil society, UNESCO's MOST Programme has collected the most relevant provisions in international conventions, declarations and multilateral treaties, which pertain to linguistic rights.

MPI-PL Tools
Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics

Software tools from the Max Planck Institute, including the audio/video annotator ELAN and the IMDI metadata suite.

Myaamia Project
Miami Nation, Miami University

The Miami language is part of the central Algonquian linguistic family and shares close features with Ojibwa-Potawatomi-Ottawa, Mesquaki-Kickapoo and Shawnee. Since 1995, the Miami Nation has been actively involved in language reclamation. We use the term reclamation because the last of our conversational speakers passed on in the early 1960s. Reclamation implies a reconstructive process, which for our case involves the use of written records of Miami-Illinois spanning nearly 300 years.

National and International Funding opportunities
Resource Network for Linguistic Diversity

A list of funding opportunities for endangered languages, including non-subject-specific funding sources.

National Indian Telecommunications Institute
National Indian Telecommunications Institute

NITI's goal is to employ advanced technology to serve American Indians, Native Hawaiians and Alaska Natives in the areas of education, economic development, language and cultural preservation, tribal policy issues and self-determination.

National Indigenous Languages Survey Report 2005

A review of the current state of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander language use across Australia as well as policy recommendations designed to improve those circumstances.

Native American Language Grants
Native Languages of the Americas

Native Languages of the Americas has a small amount of funding available to make grants supporting the survival of Amerindian languages.

Native Languages Initiative (Minnesota)
Grotto Foundation

Funds community projects to preserve and restore Native American languages of Minnesota.

Native Languages of the Americas: Endangered Language Revitalization and Revival
Laura Redish

A simple introduction to language revitalisation for the non-specialist.

Natural Language Toolkit (NTLK)

NLTK — the Natural Language Toolkit — is a suite of open source Python modules, data and documentation for research and development in natural language processing.

Nick Thieberger's home page
Nick Thieberger

Includes papers on audio concordances for linguists, notes for the computer-assisted language worker, and other useful resources.

The NINCH Guide to Good Practice in the Digital Representation and Management of Cultural Heritage Materials
Humanities Advanced Technology and Information Institute (HATII), University of Glasgow, and National Initiative for a Networked Cultural Heritage (NINCH)

A guide to good practice in digital archival.

Online Computer Library Center
Online Computer Library Center

Resources and news for librarians.

Open Language Archives Community
Open Language Archives Community

OLAC, the Open Language Archives Community, is an international partnership of institutions and individuals who are creating a worldwide virtual library of language resources by: (i) developing consensus on best current practice for the digital archiving of language resources, and (ii) developing a network of interoperating repositories and services for housing and accessing such resources.

Our Languages
Our Languages Mob

Intended to become a place where people from all around Australia will be able to share and to come together in all manner of ways to support the 250 plus Aboriginal Languages that exist in Australia.

Claire Bowern

A blog with notices of recent papers on the Indigenous languages of Australia.


PARADISEC (Pacific And Regional Archive for Digital Sources in Endangered Cultures) offers a facility for digital conservation and access for endangered materials from the Pacific region, defined broadly to include Oceania and East and Southeast Asia. Its links page gathers together a number of useful resources relevant to digital archiving.

Phillips Fund Grant for Native American Research
American Philosophical Society

Funds community projects to preserve and restore Native American languages of Minnesota.

Portability, Modularity and Seamless Speech-Corpus Indexing and Retrieval: A New Software for Documenting (not only) the Endangered Formosan Aboriginal Languages
Josef Szakos and Ulrike Glavitsch

SpeechIndexer has two versions, one for the preparation of data and one for the search and sharing of the database. The researcher correlates the transcribed morphemes with the highlighted data from the authentic audio recording and creates indices. He/she can then string-search the database according to morphemes, grammatical tags, etc., depending on the indices prepared.

Potawatomi Language and Culture
Donald Perrot

A site dedicated to the preservation, revitalisation, and dissemination of the Potawatomi language.

Praat: doing phonetics by computer
Paul Boersma and David Weenink

Praat is a program for speech analysis and synthesis written by Paul Boersma och David Weenink at the Department of Phonetics of the University of Amsterdam (links on the Contents page).

Preservation: Audiovisual Carriers
Oxford University Library Services

A guide to the preservation of various audiovisual media.

Project for the Documentation of the Languages of Mesoamerica (PDLMA)
Terrence Kaufman, John Justeson and Roberto Zavala Maldonado, directors

This site presents the aims, history, and results of research by the Project for the Documentation of the Languages of Mesoamerica, internally known as the "Snake Jaguar Project".

The Protégé Ontology Editor
Stanford Medical Informatics

Protégé is a free, open source ontology editor and knowledge-base framework.

Python Resources for Linguists New to Programming
Michael A. Covington

Recommends resources for linguists new to programming trying to get to grips with Python, popular for text processing, corpus statistics, and the like.

Recipe for a Successful Website
Nathan Shedroff

A simple introduction to web design.

Recording directly to laptop?

A discussion of how and whether to record audio directly to a laptop

The Regex Coach
Edi Weitz

The Regex Coach is a graphical application for Windows which can be used to experiment with (Perl-compatible) regular expressions interactively.

Regular Expression HOWTO
A. M. Kuchling

This document is an introductory tutorial to using regular expressions in Python with the re module.

Regular Expression Tutorial
Jan Goyvaerts

A tutorial in writing and processing regular expressions.

Report on the SALSA Special Colloquium on Archiving Language Materials in Web-Accessible Databases
Endangered Language Fund

On ethical and legal issues surrounding digital archival of linguistic materials.

Representing information about words digitally
Jane Simpson

The growth in the use of computers has transformed all aspects of dictionary-making, from collecting data about word meanings and uses, creating a set of dictionary entries, and displaying, using, preserving and distributing these entries and the data on which they are based. This paper discusses the transformations, and considers the ways in which dictionaries for minority languages are leading or lagging in the electronic-dictionary age. Illustrations are taken mostly from the uses of digital sound in modern multimedia dictionaries.

A review of the Marantz PMD 660
Jeff Towne

Examines and tests the Marantz PMD660, a solid-state recorder.

Revitalising Indigenous Languages
ed. Jon Reyhner, Gina Cantoni, Robert N. St. Clair, and Evangeline Parsons Yazzie

Revitalizing Indigenous Languages is a compilation of papers presented at the Fifth Annual Stabilizing Indigenous Languages Symposium on May 15 and 16, 1998, at the Galt House East in Louisville, Kentucky.

Richard Strand's Nuristan Site
Richard Strand

This site contains previously unpublished material on the linguistics and ethnography of Nuristân and neighboring regions, collected and analyzed by Richard F. Strand over the last thirty years.

RLG DigiNews
Cornell University Library

RLG DigiNews is a bimonthly electronic newsletter that focuses on digitization and digital preservation.

RNLD: Resource Network for Linguistic Diversity
Margaret Florey, Nick Thieberger

The Resource Network for Linguistic Diversity aims to link people involved in language work who may be speakers of indigenous languages and their descendents, linguists, staff of language centres, educators (in many different educational settings), archivists, specialists in the development of appropriate technology, and key regional institutions (community, government, nongovernment).

Roland US - Edirol

Audio recording equipment.

Rosetta Stone: Endangered Language Program
Rosetta Stone

Commercial technology development for endangered language revitalisation.

Sacred Earth Network Endangered Languages Program
Sacred Earth Network

Concentrating on indigenous languages that are endangered in North America and Siberia. A key part of the Program is grants dissemination for projects directly working on preservation/rebirth of these languages.

Salikoko Mufwene: Goodies
Salikoko S. Mufwene

An extensive selection of online articles, many related to language endangerment and change.

Script Encoding Initiative
Deborah Anderson (University of California, Berkeley)

The Script Encoding Initiative (SEI), established in the UC Berkeley Department of Linguistics in April 2002, is a project devoted to the preparation of formal proposals for the encoding of scripts and script elements not yet currently supported in Unicode (ISO/IEC 10646).

The secret life of Unicode
Suzanne Topping (BizWonk, Inc.)

Discusses some of the weak points of the Unicode standard.

Securing Interpretability: The Case of Ega Language Documentation
Gibbon, Dafydd and Bow, Catherine and Bird, Steven and Hughes, Baden

"The prime consideration in designing sustainable language resources is to ensure that they remain interpretable for coming generations of users. In this paper we adopt a new perspective on resource creation - securing the interpretability of data, using a case study of Ega, an endangered African language for which a small amount of legacy data is available. Basic steps to securing interpretability are to transfer files to durable media, and where possible, to convert all legacy data into XML files with Unicode character encodings. In the absence of agreed "best practice" standards, we propose a methodology of better practice to assist in the transition process towards this goal. We discuss a number of issues involed in securing interpretability of the lexicon, character encodings, interlinear glossed text, annotated recordings and nomenclature in linguistic descriptions, and describe our solutions."

The semantics of markup
Gary Simons, William Lewis, and Scott Farrar

A method for mapping linguistic descriptions in plain XML into semantically rich RDF/OWL.

SemArch - Semitisches Tonarchiv
Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg

A set of field-recorded sound files for (mainly endangered) Semitic languages

7-Series Recorders
Sound Devices

A commercial overview of a new recorder series.

SIL Fonts for downloading
Victor Gaultney (SIL)

A number of downloadable Unicode fonts collectively covering the extended Latin, IPA, extended Arabic, Ethiopic, Burmese, Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew, and Yi scripts.

A Simple Character Entity Chart
Adrian Roselli

Character entities for HTML.

The Siouan Languages Bibliography
John P. Boyle

The purpose of this web site is to bring together in one place a searchable bibliography of all the linguistic and language related work done on the Siouan-Catawban languages.

Siouan Texts
Jan F. Ullrich

A large number of Lakota/Dakota/Assiniboin texts.

SMIL Authoring Tools
Sams Publishing

Tools for adding multimedia to Web pages.

Software Tools for Indigenous Knowledge Management
Jane Hunter, DSTC Pty Ltd; Bevan Koopman, University of Queensland, Australia; and Jane Sledge, Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian, USA

Describes a set of open source software tools designed to enable indigenous communities to protect unique cultural knowledge and materials preserved through digitization.

Some 2000 Language Reference Resources
Harald Hammarström

A bibliography of reference grammars available in the University libraries of Gothenburg, Stockholm, Uppsala, Leiden (incl. Kerns and KITLV), Kungliga Biblioteket or the EVA, MPG Library in Leipzig.

Some background information for travellers, field workers and visitors to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea)
Eva Lindstrom

Travel tips for fieldworkers in Papua New Guinea (New Ireland.)

The Sonic Spot: Sample Editors
The Sonic Spot

A list of software that can play, edit, fine-tune and often record audio files. Some can also send and receive samples from an external sampler.


A program intended to safeguard threatened languages.

South Asian Linguistics
John Peterson

An online bibliography for seldom studied and endangered languages of South Asia. The main emphasis here is on recent linguistic works which may not yet be known to the larger academic community, although many older standard works have also been included as well as related non-linguistic material, where this is available. “South Asia” here includes India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and Tibet.

Speech analysis and transcription software
Joaquim Llisterri, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

A set of links to speech analysis and transcription software.

Speech and Spoken Language Resources - Bibliography
Joaquim Llisterri, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

A bibliography on sound recording for linguists, particularly in the context of corpora.

Stabilizing Indigenous Languages
Gina Cantoni (ed.), Northern Arizona University

A set of essays on indigenous language endangerment, maintenance, and revitalisation in the United States.

State of Indigenous Languages in Australia - 2001
P. McConvell and N. Thieberger

This paper documents the state of Aboriginal languages and the efforts being made to maintain them.

Jeff Towne

Collecting stereo sound in the field seems to be one of the most perplexing topics for recordists, There are a myriad of options encompassing equipment, technique and mixing. Mic placement, pick-up patterns, phase relationships and many more issues come into play

Support for Minority Languages in Europe
European Bureau for Lesser-Known Languages, European Centre for Minority Issues

The purpose of this report is to provide the necessary instruments for the orientation of European Union support to linguistic diversity. This issue is addressed in a broader context, characterised by the existence of other policies carried out at various levels (national, regional, local) aiming to protect and promote regional and minority languages (RMLs).

Sustainability of Digital Formats: Planning for Library of Congress Collections
Caroline R. Arms and Carl Fleischhauer

The Digital Formats Web site provides information about digital content formats. The analyses and resources presented here will increase and be updated over time. They fall under four headings: Introduction, Sustainability Factors, Content Categories, Format Descriptions.

System of Exhibition and Analysis of Linguistic Data (SEAL)
Chitsuko and Yusuke Fukushima

The SEAL system, developed and published by Chitsuko and Yusuke Fukushima first in 1983, works on a personal computer and can be used to process and analyze geolinguistic data and produce linguistic maps.

Tai and Tibeto-Burman Languages of Assam
Stephen Morey

Searchable texts in languages of Assam, several endangered.

Brian MacWhinney (Carnegie Mellon University)

The goal of TalkBank is to foster fundamental research in the study of human and animal communication. It will construct sample databases within each of the subfields studying communication. It will use these databases to advance the development of standards and tools for creating, sharing, searching, and commenting upon primary materials via networked computers.

TalkBank Video Equipment

A list of equipment needed to record and capture digital video

Task Force to establish selection criteria of analogue and digital audio contents for transfer to data formats for preservation purposes
International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives

Examines issues and strategies regarding priorities in digital transfer. (PDF)

Madi Mohamed

A forum and collection of materials on Berber/Tamazight languages, especially Libyan ones.

Te Kohanga Reo
Te Kohanga Reo

A Maori language and culture movement whose "language nest" method is considered one of the more successful approaches to revitalisation.

Teaching Indigenous Languages
Northern Arizona University

At the heart of this site are 97 full text papers from the 1997 through 2003 Stabilizing Indigenous Languages conferences as well as the 2000 Learn in Beauty and 1989 Native American Language Issues conferences published in Nurturing Native Languages (2003), Indigenous Languages Across the Community (2002), Learn in Beauty: Indigenous Education for a New Century (2000), Revitalizing Indigenous Languages (1999), Teaching Indigenous Languages (1997), and Effective Language Education Practices & Native Language Survival (1990). In addition, there is a link to Stabilizing Indigenous Languages, which includes papers, session summaries, and other materials from the 1994 and 1995 conferences. This site also contains articles on Indigenous language policy, dropout prevention, and teacher training along with over 50 columns from the newsletter of the National Association for Bilingual Education and other related material.

Teaching Kids About Language Change, Language Endangerment, and Language Death
Kristin Denham

"Every time I tell students in my classes about language death and language endangerment, they are surprised and shocked, not only at the information itself, but that they had never heard about it before... Students should have such basic knowledge about language change, language endangerment, and language death well before they happen upon that information in a college classroom."

Technology-Enhanced Language Revitalisation
University of Arizona

A set of resources on uses of technology in revitalising Native American languages.

Jonathan Kew (SIL)

A text encoding conversion toolkit allowing the creation of custom mappings between arbitrary encodings which can be used to automate file conversions.


Terralingua "supports the integrated protection, maintenance and restoration of the biocultural diversity of life - the world's biological, cultural, and linguistic diversity - through an innovative program of research, education, policy and on-the-ground action."

SIL International

Toolbox is a data management and analysis tool for field linguists. It is especially useful for maintaining lexical data, and for parsing and interlinearizing text, but it can be used to manage virtually any kind of data.

Tove Skutnabb-Kangas: Articles for downloading
Tove Skutnabb-Kangas

Fields of interest: Linguistic human rights, minority education, language and power, links between biodiversity and linguistic diversity, multilingualism, language policy, global (subtractive) spread of English, integration, ethnicity, racisms (including linguicism, linguistically argued racism), gender issues.

Chris Fassnacht, David C. Woods

Transana is software for professional researchers who want to analyze digital video or audio data. Transana lets you analyze and manage your data in very sophisticated ways. Transcribe it, identify analytically interesting clips, assign keywords to clips, arrange and rearrange clips, create complex collections of interrelated clips, explore relationships between applied keywords, and share your analysis with colleagues. The result is a new way to focus on your data, and a new way to manage large collections of video and audio files and clips.

Mathieu Manta, Fabien Antoine, Sylvain Galliano, Claude Barras

Transcriber is a tool for assisting the manual annotation of speech signals. It provides a user-friendly graphical user interface for segmenting long duration speech recordings, transcribing them, and labeling speech turns, topic changes and acoustic conditions. It is more specifically designed for the annotation of broadcast news recordings, for creating corpora used in the development of automatic broadcast news transcription systems, but its features might be found useful in other areas of speech research.

Transient Languages & Cultures

A multi-authored academic blog dedicated largely to language endangerment and documentation, with special focus on the Pacific.


A showcase and workshop for new public radio, with a lot of useful information on technical and interviewing methods.

Transom Tools FAQ
Jeff Towne

Frequently asked questions about sound recording tools.

Tuakana Teina
Maori Language Commission

The tuakana-teina project has been developed in response to an increasing demand for creative ways to learn to speak the Māori language, and for opportunities to use the language. The tuakana-teina project is based on the premise that each Māori speaker 'adopts' a person who wishes to learn to speak Māori. The Māori speaker assumes the 'tuakana' role in the relationship and continually speaks Māori to the person wishing to learn (the 'teina') as often as possible in everyday settings about everyday things.

Typography link pages
Luc Devroye

Links to typefaces for a wide variety of languages, font editors, and other information about typography.

UCLA Phonetics Lab Archive
UCLA, Peter Ladefoged

For over half a century, the UCLA Phonetics Laboratory has collected recordings of hundreds of languages from around the world, providing source materials for phonetic and phonological research. Many of these are available on the site, from Bahasa Aceh to Yoruba.

"Une langue disparaît tous les quinze jours"
Dominique Simonnet

An interview with Claude Hagège, author of Halte à la mort des langues.

UNESCO Archives Portal

The UNESCO Archives Portal gives access to websites of archival institutions around the world. It is also a gateway to resources related to records and archives management and to international co-operation in this area.

UNESCO Culture Sector – Safeguarding Endangered Languages

The UNESCO Endangered Languages Programme has as its mission to promote and safeguard endangered languages and linguistic diversity as an essential part of the living heritage of humanity.

UNESCO Red Book of Endangered Languages

The UNESCO Endangered Languages Programme has as its mission to promote and safeguard endangered languages and linguistic diversity as an essential part of the living heritage of humanity.

UNESCO Register of Good Practices in Language Preservation

The purpose of the Register of Good Practices in Language Preservation, a project of UNESCO's Endangered Languages Programme, is to identify, document, and render visible as well as accessible past and current practices that have proven to be successful in the protection of languages and language communities.

Unicode Font Guide for Free/Libre Open Source Operating Systems
Ed Trager

This is a selective guide to Unicode-based fonts and script projects that contain Unicode CMAPs for mapping Unicode values to glyphs and can be downloaded and used legally for free.

Unicode Home Page
Unicode Consortium

Full information on Unicode, together with technical reports and proposals.

United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues
United Nations

The UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues is an advisory body to the Economic and Social Council, with a mandate to discuss indigenous issues related to economic and social development, culture, the environment, education, health and human rights.

Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights
PEN International

An effort, led by PEN Iinternational, to establish a set of linguistic rights analogous to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Usability Engineering Page
Craig Marion

Usability engineering is a systematic approach to making software easier to use for the individuals who actually use it to get their work done. This page contains information on a variety of usability techniques and evaluation methods.

Using Text Encoding to Represent Linguistic Data
Gary Simons

A glossary containing key terms related to text encoding. Basic definitions are supplemented with pointers to further information resources.

Validation Manual for Written Language Resources
Oxford University

A manual on the evaluation of the markup of written language resources.

W3C Internationalisation Activity
World Wide Web Consortium

The W3C Internationalization Activity has the goal of proposing and coordinating any techniques, conventions, guidelines and activities within the W3C and together with other organizations that allow and make it easy to use W3C technology worldwide, with different languages, scripts, and cultures.

NCH SwiftSound

This audio editing software is described as "a full featured professional sound editor for Windows."

The Web Developer's Handbook
Vitaly Friedman

An extensive library of essential bookmarks for web-designers and web-developers.

Web Resources for African Languages
Jouni Maho

An extensive collection of African language links, including a select bibliography.

What Is An Endangered Language?
Anthony Woodbury, LSA

Frequently asked questions about endangered languages for the non-specialist.

What Microphone Do I Get?
Jeff Towne

There are lots of different kinds of microphone types: dynamic, condenser, ribbon, boundary, binaural, M-S and more. There are a myriad of pick-up patterns, different-sized diaphragms, variations in frequency response, sensitivity, self-noise, susceptibility to handling noise, wind or plosives. This article clarifies the possibilities.

What Native Communities Want from Web-Based Data
Doug Whalen

Although the communities that make up or represent the native speakers of a language constitute potential users of a language database, they have concerns that go beyond those of a typical user. These include making it possible to download material easily into non-web formats; being able to place restrictions on who can access certain texts; and sharing in any tangible benefits that arise from their language material.

Who Owns Native Culture?
Michael F. Brown

Resources for understanding current debates about the legal status of indigenous art, music, folklore, biological knowledge, and sacred places.

Will Indigenous Languages Survive?
Michael Walsh, Annual Review of Anthropology

This review explores efforts in language revitalisation and documentation and the engagement with Indigenous peoples.

Working with audio and video data on your PC
University College London

This page shows you how you can use free tools for sound and video capture and processing on your PC.

Working with XML: The Java API for Xml Processing (JAXP) Tutorial
Eric Armstrong

A tutorial in the use of XML in general and the Java XML API in particular.

World Language Mapping System
Global Mapping International

GIS language map data for the languages listed in Ethnologue, with an emphasis on Christian missionary applications.

World Oral Literature Project
University of Cambridge

A global initiative to document and make accessible endangered oral literatures before they disappear without record.

Wunderkammer and wkimport
Project for Free Electronic Dictionaries

Wunderkammer is a Java ME MIDlet for storing and displaying multimedia electronic dictionaries on mobile phones. wkimport is an application for importing electronic dictionaries in a variety of formats into Wunderkammer.

XML and Unicode
Robin Cover

An extensive collection of Unicode-related links.

XSLT transforms library
J. M. Vanel

This is a collection of XSLT transforms, models and reusable fragments under GPL, involving HTML tables, XML Schema, HTML GUI, MathML, SQL analogy, etc. This has been developed as part of the "Worlwide Botanical Knowledge Base" project.

Yurok Language Project
Juliette Blevins, Andrew Garrett, University of California, Berkeley

Includes a variety of interesting online materials for learning and studying Yurok, an endangered Native American language of California. It seeks "to develop a documentary corpus of Yurok that is as comprehensive as possible and contributes as much as possible to understanding the complexities of the Yurok language."

From Generation to Generation: Survival and Maintenance of Canada's Aboriginal Languages Within Families, Communities and Cities
Mary Jane Norris and Lorna Jantzen

This paper explores the survival and maintenance of Aboriginal languages in Canada, focusing on the critical factor of language transmission from one generation to another. It also considers the challenges of language maintenance outside of Aboriginal communities within cities, and provides an overview and classification of endangered and viable Aboriginal languages, with demographic measures of language use, population size and average age of speakers. Factors affecting language survival and maintenance are explored.